Branded Communication Glossary

Access to Contacts Permission

The necessary permission required to deliver the ENGAGE service, utilizing both Read and Write functions. The Read function prevents the SDK from overwriting an existing contact while the Write function creates (i.e., Pushes) the contact before the call and then removes the contact after the call is completed.

Access Token

A string value used for the authentication scheme and sent in the HTTP Authorization header.

Agent Utilization

The percentage of time an active call center agent spends calling or performing other call-related work. Provides a metric based on how much of at-work time is spent on assigned tasks.

Amazon Web Services (AWS)

The cloud platform used by First Orion.

Answer Rate

A metric representing the percent of calls answered to speak to the efficiency of the outbound calling number used by the Business.


The number initiating a call, also referred to as the originating number, business number, or calling party.


Graphic that will be displayed on a device during an incoming call.

Average Handle Time (AHT)

The average duration of the entire customer call transaction beginning when the call is initiated, all hold times and transfers, the completion of the call and any after-call work.

Average Wait Time (AWT)

The average time an inbound call pends in a queue or awaiting IVR call-back. Also referred to as the Average Speed of Answer (ASA).

Batch Push

A collection of API endpoints that sends content, as a Push event in batch format, to a list of enabled bNumbers. This API interface can send, at one time, content from up to 400 aNumbers to a maximum of 25,000 bNumbers. It allows future dating for content pushes with an optional nB4 field and allows TTL for content pushes.


The number being called, also referred to as the terminating number or receiving party.

Branded Call

The customized media displayed on the native dialer during an ENGAGE call that includes: the custom name, graphics, and the description of the reason for the call.


A Business, as used for Branded Calling, represents the Enterprise or top-level entity responsible for managing the associated Business Units.

Business Unit

A division of an Enterprise operating independently and with responsibility for a particular range of products or activities. Within Branded Calling, it designates a container for one or more created calling groups of a Business. A Business will have one or more Business Units to serve as a container for one or more calling Programs. An Enterprise will often set up Branded Calling Business Units based upon departments, such as: customer service, billing, delivery, etc.

Business Vetting

Refers to the vetting processes and procedures used to verify businesses, their right to use their registered telephone numbers, and their relationship to the called party.

Call Blocked by User

The inability for a call to connect due to the user having blocked that aNumber on their device.

Call Data

Stripped, anonymized SIP messages specific to the needs of INFORM.

Call Disposition

The final outcome of a call, also referred to as Call Resolution.

Call Duration

The interval of time a call is established between the aNumber and bNumber or during which information is transferred.

Call Log and Phone State Permission

Permissions that allow the SDK to be notified that a call event has occurred and provides telemetry for deeper analysis, such as Answer Rates. NOTE: These require read-only access specific to Android apps.

Call Origination

The OSP is responsible for the origination of the call onto the service provider voice network if the service provider receives the call via UNI.

Call Pairing

Allows multiple Caller Name replacements to be assigned to predefined sets of aNumbers and bNumbers. Works for both ENGAGE and INFORM. INFORM programs utilizing this methodology will only be applied to specified bNumbers, other bNumbers will receive the preexisting INFORM Caller Name. ENGAGE programs only utilizes aNumber to bNumber Pushes.

Calls Per Hour (CPH)

A metric used to measure productivity of a call center based on calls received by agents in one hour.

Calls Per Individual

The average number of calls per unique called number.

Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA)

A trade association that represents the Wireless industry in the United States.

(Digital) Certificate

Binds a public key to a Subject (e.g., the end-entity). A certificate document in the form of a digital data object (a data object used by a computer) to which is a append a computed digital signature value that depends on the data object.


A geographically distributed group of servers that work together to deliver internet content. A CDN allows for the quick transfer of assets needed for loading Internet content including HTML pages, JavaScript files, stylesheets, images, and videos.

Certificate Repository

Application that stores T-Mobile's public Key that T-Mobile's peers will use for verification of their signed identity headers.

Certification Authority

An entity that issues digital certificates (especially x.509 certificates) and vouches for the binding between the data items in a certificate.

CloudWatch (Amazon)

A monitoring and observability service built for DevOps engineers, developers, site reliability engineers (SREs), and IT managers.


A string of up to 15 characters associated with a phone number that identifies the caller to the receiving end.

Communications Platform as a Service (CPaaS)

Is a cloud-based platform that connects enterprises and customers in a simple and easy-to-use way.

Company Code

Unique four-character alphanumeric code (NXXX) assigned to all Service Providers

Content Management

Management of Assets such as display name, reason for the call, and company logo via First Orion’s CDN within the Exchange.

Contact Rate

The percent of unique called numbers answering at least one call.

Content Vetting

The vetting of assets such as display name, reason for the call, and company logo meet multi-level policy requirements (carrier, customer, and First Orion policy adherence).

Content Portal

A web-based platform containing functionality for customers to create and maintain Call Enhancement configuration allowing enhanced, branded content to be delivered to enabled devices.

Conversion Rate

The percentage of calls that resulted in a successful outcome as determined by the Enterprise, such as the number of sales, payments/donations collected, appointments made, survey questions answered, etc.

Decline Rate

The percent of treated calls that were declined by the user.

Delivery Channel

The means of Branded Calling distribution composed of the program asset information, calling number, and number(s) to be called.

The Digital Communications Exchange (DCE)

A technology platform facilitated by First Orion that enables the buying and selling of trusted and secure branded phone calls between enterprises and multiple carrier networks via a real-time API approach.

Distribution Customer

A business with a mobile Host Application that has integrated with the ENGAGE SDK.

E.164 Format

E.164 is the international telephone numbering plan that ensures each device has globally unique number. E.164 numbers have a maximum of fifteen (15) digits and are formatted as: [+] [country code] [subscriber number including area code]


An entity that participates in the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Usually a Server, Service, Router, or a Person. In the context of this document, an end-entity is a Service Provider, TNSP, or Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Entity.

Engagement Rate (Dynamic)

The percent of answered calls having a minimum duration of the value specified in the Successful Call Duration control (default is 60 seconds).


An authentication scheme using a single set of credentials to obtain scoped access to functionality across various services.

Fetch Methodology

A less desirable methodology used by our competitors. Content is not loaded onto the receiving device until after the call is initiated, severely limiting the customers calling experience.

First Call Resolution (FCR)

The ability of a contact center to resolve customer problems, questions, or needs during the first call and without any follow-up required. This metric is typically one of the most valuable for an Enterprise to track. Also referred to as First Call Close.

First Call Close

The best time to close the deal or resolve an issue is the first time an agent calls a client or potential client. Call-backs have very low-performance metrics and can be a waste of various resources. This metric is typically one of the most valuable for an Enterprise to track.

FOGI (First on Gets It)

Dictates the order of priority in which ENGAGE pushes are served to specific AppIDs on a device. The first application on a device with the ENGAGE SDK integrated and with all of the necessary permissions enabled has first priority.

Host Application

The iOS and/or Android application that will integrate the ENGAGE SDK.

Individual Long Call

The percent of individuals contacted in which the longest call that lasted one (1) minute or longer.

Individual Short Call

The percent of individuals contacted in which the longest call that lasted less than ten (10) seconds.


Method of Branded Communication program delivery via a custom Display Name of up to 32 characters.

Keep After Call (ENGAGE)

An ENGAGE function that allows the Content Provider to dictate if the contact will remain on the device.

Keep After Call (INFORM)

An INFORM function that allows the Content Provider to dictate the 32-character, customized name will remain in-network after the initial call is made for a predesignated amount of time. If this setting is not applied, the 32-character customization will be removed after the first call has been completed. This feature is also available on limited Android ENGAGE-enabled devices.

Know Your Customer (KYC) or Business Vetting

The vetting processes and procedures used to verify businesses, their right to use their registered telephone numbers, and their relationship to the called party.

Integration Customer

The customer using the service to deliver ENGAGE content to enabled bNumbers.

Long Duration Call

The percent of answered calls that last one (1) minute or longer.

Max Wait Duration

Maximum length of time an ENGAGE-enabled device has to respond after attempting to deliver ENGAGE content to the bNumber and executing HTTP Push request.

Mobile-First Company

An Enterprise, or a Distribution Customer, that primarily uses mobile devices to interact with their customer base.

Not Before (nB4)

Predesignated time frame or calling window during which a push will take place. A Content Provider may schedule an ENGAGE program in advance and the system will deliver content pushes to the bNumbers at the time dictated by the applied nB4 settings. NB4 is exclusive to in-network (T-Mobile) US accounts.

Inactive Users

Users who have installed a mobile app but have not opened the app during a designated time period, generally over a month.

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)

The manufacturer of telecommunications devices. In the context of RCD, devices have to be manufactured with the ability to receive RCD calls by their OEMs.

Originating Service Provider (OSP)

The call originator or carrier that delivers a call for the calling party.

Over the Top (OTT) Application

Apps that can be downloaded from the Apple and/or Google Play store. In most cases, the Host Application will be an OTT Application.

Policy Enforcement

The measures taken by the FCC or other authorities to regulate telecommunications policy. Policy enforcement delivers consequences to agents for policy violations.


A set of instructions for a specific call program created for a Content Provider that includes: the aNumbers, the bNumbers, the 32-character replacement Display Name, the TTL, etc.

Program Content

Information that will display on an ENGAGE-enabled device when a call is received. Content is determined by the Enterprise.

Public Key

The publicly disclosable component of a pair of cryptographic keys used for asymmetric cryptography.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

The ser of hardware, software, personnel, policy, and procedures used by a CA to issue and manage certificates.

Push Methodology

A methodology patented by First Orion that utilizes a push that allows ENGAGE content to be loaded on the receiving device before the call is made, drastically increasing performance during the calling experience


The number of unique phone numbers called.

Real-Time Push

The ENGAGE Federated Real-Time Push Service is a collection of API endpoints allowing aNumbers to be pushed to the bNumber prior to the Content Push. This Real-Time Push functionality will send one or more aNumbers to a single bNumber in advance of the phone call, ensuring the receiving device recognizes the aNumber(s) used for the Content Push.

Service Provider

The parent Enterprise or primary organization that will create and manage one or more Content Providers as needed from which to run calling Programs to meet their business needs.

Session Border Controller (SBC)

A network element deployed to protect SIP-based voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) networks.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

A signaling protocol used for initiating, maintaining, and terminating real-time sessions that include voice, video, and messaging applications. SIP is a call and response protocol.

Short Duration Call

The percent of answered calls that last less than ten (10) seconds.

Software Development Kit (SDK)

A collection of software development tools in one installable package.

SOGI (Stays on Gets It)

A device that has successfully installed an application in which the ENGAGE SDK is integrated and has maintained all of the needed permissions with no interruption of ENGAGE service.

Success Rate (Dynamic)

The percent of unique called numbers with at least one call having a minimum duration of the value specified in the Successful Call Duration control (default is 60 seconds).

Talk Rate

The percent of answered calls with a duration of at least ten seconds.

Telephone Number Right of Use (TN RoU)

A method in which a business, enterprise, or entity proves their right to use a telephone number to make outbound calls. There are several TN RoU methods available including Registered CallerTM and Delegate Certificates.

Terminating Service Provider (TSP)

Refers to the carrier of the called party or call recipient.


The process of determining the entity that initiated a call.

Treated Calls

The number of calls that were treated with INFORM.

TTL / Time to Live

Predesignated time, set by the Content Provider making the call or ENGAGE Push, during which time the newly created contact will "live" on a device for an ENGAGE and/or INFORM call.

Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS)

A cloud-delivered unified communications model that supports enterprise telephony, meetings (audio, video, and web conferencing), unified messaging, instant messaging, mobility, and communications-enabled business processes.

Unique Device

A single cellular/mobile device.

VoIP Entity

A non-STI-authorized end user entity or other calling entity that purchases (or otherwise obtains) delegated telephone numbers from a TNSP.

VoIP Entity Subordinate Certificate Authority (V-SCA)

An SCA that gets its certificate from an STI-SCA or from another V-SCA.